lar. There are two cases: the nominative and the objective (accusative). The root with the added o is the nominative, the objective adds an n after the o. Other cases are formed by prepositions; thus, the possessive (genitive) by de, "of"; the dative by al, "to", the instrumental (ablative) by kun, "with", or other preposition as the sense demands. E. g. root patr, "father"; la patr'o, "the father"; la patr'o'n, "the father" (objective), de la patr'o, "of the father"; al la patr'o, "to the father"; kun la patr'o, "with the father"; la patr'o'j, "the fathers"; la patr'o'j'n, "the fathers" (obj.), por la patr'o'j, "for the fathers".
3. Adjectives are formed by adding a to the root. The numbers and cases are the same as in substantives. The comparative degree is formed by prefixing pli (more); the superlative by plej (most). The word "than" is rendered by ol, e. g. pli blank'a ol neĝ'o, "whiter than snow".
4. The cardinal numerals do not change their forms for the different cases. They are:
unu (1), du (2), tri (3), kvar (4), kvin (5), ses (6), sep (7), ok (8), naŭ (9), dek (10), cent (100), mil (1000).
The tens and hundreds are formed by simple junction of the numerals, e. g. 583 = kvin'cent tri'dek tri.
Ordinals are formed by adding the adjectival a to the cardinals, e. g. unu'a, "first"; du'a, "second", etc.
Multiplicatives (as "threefold", "fourfold", etc.) add obl, e. g. tri'obl'a, "threefold".
Fractionals add on, as du'on'o, "a half"; kvar'on'o, "a quarter". Collective numerals add op, as kvar'op'e, "four together".
Distributive prefix po, e. g., po kvin, "five apiece".
Adverbials take e, e. g., unu'e, "firstly", etc.