h) The present participle passive ends in at, e. g. far'at'e, "being done".
ĥ) The past participle passive ends in it, e. g. far'it'a, "that which has been done"; far'it'e, "having been done".
i) The future participle passive ends in ot, e. g. far'ot'a, "that which will be done"; far'ot'e, "about to be done".
All forms of the passive are rendered by the respective forms of the verb est (to be) and the participle passive of the required verb; the preposition used is de, "by". E. g. ŝi est'as am'at'a de ĉiu'j, "she is loved by every one".
7. Adverbs are formed by adding e to the root. The degrees of comparison are the same as in adjectives, e. g., mi'a frat'o kant'as pli bon'e ol mi, "my brother sings better than I".
8. All prepositions govern the nominative case.
9. Every word is to be read exactly as written, there are no silent letters.
10. The accent falls on the last syllable but one, (penultimate).
11. Compound words are formed by the simple junction of roots, (the principal word standing last), which are written as a single word, but, in elementary works, sepated by a small line ('). Grammatical terminations are considered as independent words. E.g. vapor’ŝip’o, "steamboat" is composed of the roots vapor, "steam", and ŝip, "a boat", with the substantival termination o.